Ukrainian Immigration to Alberta

ukrainian dance, ukrainians in canada.Image via WikipediaSource:
Despite being known as the breadbasket of the Soviet Union and claiming large deposits of coal and iron, Ukraine is a nation whose history has been dominated by poverty. Foreign rulers, whether Mongols, Latvians, Poles, or Russians, have controlled or divided Ukraine among themselves for the past 100 years. These rulers have ensured that many Ukrainians remain poverty-stricken peasants. In 1891, having learned of Canada’s untapped potential, the first Ukrainian immigrants sold their meagre landholdings and headed west.
Dancers at the Ukrainian Pavilion Ukraine’s immigration history to Canada can be broken into four waves, each growing progressively smaller and less important to Ukrainian-Canadian society.
The first wave began in 1891 when two peasants, Ivan Pylypiw and Wasyl Eleniak, established the community of Edna-Star east of Edmonton. Soon after, other immigrants followed in their footsteps. These pioneers came from two major regions: Galicia, part of Poland, and Bukovyna, part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Their reasons for leaving were many and included a growing population’ quickly running out of land, malnutrition which resulted not only from overpopulation but also from the primitive farming techniques applied at the time, and social problems such as illiteracy, drunkenness, and heavy debt loads.
These immigrants were encouraged by Canada and then-Minister of the Interior Clifford Sifton. At the time, Canada was eager to settle the untamed wilds of the prairie provinces and in exchange for only a $10 registration fee, was offering 160 acres of land each to willing farmers. For many Ukrainians who owned only a couple of acres in Europe, this was an enticing offer. In all, 170,000 Ukrainians arrived in Canada between 1891 and 1914. The majority of these immigrants were farmers who established small farming communities in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba.
Although their immigration was encouraged by the Canadian government, many of the existing Anglo-Saxon elite held mixed opinions about the new arrivals. Some worried that the concentrated settlement in the area east of Edmonton would lead to a stretch of Ukrainian land that would resist the adoption of Canadian values and ideals. As such, in 1896, the Canadian government helped to establish several, smaller Ukrainian settlements across the prairies.
Ukrainians, along with other Eastern Europeans, faced increased discrimination after the start of World War I. The war not only brought a halt to immigration, but it also placed restrictions on Ukrainians living in Canada. Since Ukraine was partly under the control of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, with which Canada was at war, Ukrainians were designated as foreign aliens. They were told to register and report often to the nearest government office, and as a result of the Wartime Elections Act, those who entered Canada after 1902 were disenfranchised. Those who did not follow the new restrictions and some unemployed men were placed in wartime internment camps.
Homestead of Zahara family One positive outcome of the war was that the increase in the price of wheat allowed many Ukrainian-Albertan farmers to enjoy new-found prosperity. Some were even able to increase the size of their farms as a result.
Ukrain's independence following World War I was shortlived; the nation was soon carved up between Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, and Russia. Immigration resumed shortly after the war’s end. Most Ukrainians continued to arrive from the regions of Galicia and Bukovyna. Although they encountered some political oppression on the part of the Polish government, most Ukrainians chose to emigrate for economic reasons similar to those that existed before the war. In all, 68,000 Ukrainians came to Canada in the period betwen the World Wars. They were welcomed by the existing Ukrainian population, although many settled in new areas because land was scarce where communities already existed. Alberta’s Ukrainian population rose to 71,868, still less than the totals for Manitoba and Saskatchewan.
For its part, the Canadian government was no longer as eager to support Ukrainian immigration. In 1923, the government, concerned over the rising numbers of non-British immigrants, classified different nationalities as being either “preferred” or “non-preferred.” Ukrainians fell into the latter group and as such, they could only gain entrance to Canada if they had family members already living in the country or as farmers, farm labourers, or domestic help.
Ukrainian thatched houses north of Vegreville, 
Alberta During the Great Depression, immigration all but stopped. Only those who could prove they had enough money to start a farm were allowed to immigrate: Canada had closed its borders in an attempt to reverse the economic slide. By the late 1930s, immigration had, to some degree at last, resumed. Many Ukrainians left their homelands fearing another war.
Just as World War I had done, World War II cut off immigration. The third wave of Ukrainian immigration resumed after the end of the conflict and consisted of displaced persons (DPs) left homeless by the war. While some Ukrainians were repatriated back to their homelands, others did not return, not wanting to move to the now Soviet-controlled Ukraine.
Between 1947 and 1953, more than 34,000 displaced persons of Ukrainian descent came to Canada. These newcomers differed from earlier immigrants in several ways: first, they tended to be better educated or have more extensive training. An inabiltiy to communicate in English, however, led to problems finding work. What's more, they came from all across Ukraine and not just from a couple of regions. Finally, they chose Ontario and Toronto in particular over Western Canada.
The fourth and final wave of Ukrainian immigration took place in the 1970s and 1980s. It was a small trickle of 10,000 or so who managed to escape communist Poland and the Soviet Union. During this time, Alberta’s Ukrainian population was bolstered not only by immigrants but also by Ukrainians’ moving from Saskatchewan and Manitoba. By 1981, Alberta, with 136,710 claiming Ukrainian heritage, boasted the highest Ukrainian population of any Canadian province. This population was mostly Canadian-born, urban, and assimilated.
In 2001, Ontario was home to Canada’s largest Ukrainian population: Ontario boasted 290,925 Ukrainians compared to Alberta’s 285,725. However, while this only accounted for 2.6 per cent of Ontario’ population, it accounted for almost 10 percent of Alberta’s. Edmonton retains the largest Ukrainain population of any Canadian city with 125,720 while Ukrainians and their descendants make up the eighth largest ethnic group in Canada with a little over a million people.
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Dutch Immigration to Alberta

The Netherlands sits on the North Sea, sandwiched between Germany and Belgium. Its geography, small and low-lying and relying on a series of dykes to prevent it from flooding, has played an important role in its history. Although many Dutch have not wished to leave their homeland, a lack of land and at times a lack of food have forced them to seek new homes overseas. Most Dutch immigrants have left in search of a sounder economic future rather than as a result of political factors.
The first Dutch immigrants sought a better way of life and sailed primarily for the United States, founding New Amsterdam (now New York) in 1625. It wasn’t until the late 1700s that Dutch immigrants began trickling into Canada. The first Dutch to call Canada home came primarily for two reasons: (1) land was cheaper in Canada and (2) the Dutch were Loyalists who had fought with the British against the Americans in the American War of Independence.
It would be another 100 years beofre the Dutch, during the 1890s, began arriving in any large numbers. Most of these people came as farmers looking for land. Much of the land in the United States had already been claimed, driving up prices. By comparison, however, land in Canada was inexpensive or free because the Canadian government had promoted settlement of the Canadian West.
At this time, Dutch immigrants arriving in Alberta came from two areas: the United States and the Netherlands. Those coming from the Netherlands came reluctantly, not wanting to desert their homeland. They were forced into moving by several factors, including:
  1. The country’s small size couldn’t accommodate the large population.
  2. The Netherlands’ neighbours were restricting imports of agricultural products.
  3. Competition from North American goods was driving Dutch prices down.
Together, these factors left many Dutch with no hope of owning their own land or of finding a job. As a result, they left the Netherlands for Canada.
The Canadian government viewed the Dutch as ideal immigrants: they were seen as good farmers likely to stay on the land; they were of Nordic descent; and their Protestantism meant they would quickly adapt to Canadian society.
This last assertion proved correct as, unlike many other immigrant groups, the Dutch spread across the country, establishing only a few notable Dutch settlements. In Alberta, Dutch settlements included Neerlandia near Edmonton and Strathmore near Calgary. Many Dutch made it a point to assimilate quickly. Many were Protestant or Catholic so religion was not a barrier to their adaptation. Those who did not know English learned it quickly. The strongholds of Dutch culture and language were those communities founded around the Christian Reformed Church.
World War I halted the flow of immigrants arriving in Canada, but the end of the Great War brought about a second wave of Dutch to Canada. Again, many were forced to leave due to their own country's being overcrowded. Unable to gain access to the United States due to America's restrictive immigration measures, many Dutch ended up in Canada — mostly in Ontario. The Great Depression once again brought a halt to immigration: this stoppage lasted until the end of World War II.
The number of Dutch arriving in Canada following World War II was the largest yet. Once again, the Netherlands’ small size forced immigrants to leave the country. Other, secondary reasons, caused many Dutch to immigrate: the fear of a Third World War, severe flooding in 1953, and a dissatisfaction with Dutch government policies.
In the years following World War II, the Dutch were the third largest group to immigrate to Canada (after the British and Germans). Over 20,000 Dutch arrived in Alberta during this time, representing 15 percent of the total number of Dutch immigrants. The arrival of the Dutch during this time was made possible by both the Canadian and Dutch governments. The Dutch government was eager to ease the overpopulation problem while the Canadian government still viewed Dutch immigration favourably. The two governments reached an agreement that saw Canada allow progressively larger numbers of immigrants to enter Canada; these increased numbers were based on labour shortages.
Dutch immigrants were primarily farmers and workers with low levels of education. They arrived in family groups and were often sponsored by family members or assisted by church groups. These links allowed Dutch immigrants to assimilate more easily though some encountered difficulties due to their lack of English.
The number of Dutch immigrants arriving in Canada remained high until 1961 when numbers dropped off considerably due to the improving Dutch economy.
Today, Alberta is home to roughly 149,000 Dutch-Canadians — 16 percent of the Canada’s total Dutch population. Calgary and Edmonton are home to almost equal numbers of Dutch with 40,000 and 41,000 thousand respectively.
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Caribbean (West Indian) Immigration to Alberta

The Immigration Act of 1910 gave the Canadian government great power over selecting who could immigrate. A list of clauses, one of which indicating that “any race deemed unsuited to the climate or requirements of Canada, or of immigrants of any specified class, occupation or character.” (African-American Canadians, 69) allowed the federal government to selectively determine who would be allowed to immigrate to Canada. Provisions such as these allowed the government to accept immigrants from one country while barring them from another.
During the first half of the 20th century, this immigration policy allowed Europeans to immigrate to Canada at the exclusion of virtually every other ethnic group. It also meant that people from different Caribbean nations were all treated the same way: the diversity of Caribbean cultures was disregarded. Although people from the Caribbean represent diverse cultures and heritage, this section will deal with the Caribbean nations as a group, as their immigration history to Canada is much the same.
Although provisions tended to exclude all but those of European descent from immigrating to Canada, there was one exception to the rule. During labour shortages, it was possible to hire people of other ethnicities to perform certain jobs. It was through this exception that many early immigrants from Caribbean nations such as Jamaica and Barbados arrived in Canada. During the First World War, for example, Caribbean immigrants arrived in Nova Scotia to work in the coal mines near Sydney or in the shipyards of Halifax. Over the years, other West Indians immigrated to serve as domestic help. Many used such labour demand exemptions to gain a foothold in Canada. After serving as labourers for a few years, they were free to pursue careers in other fields (e.g., nursing or teaching) and to move to larger centres like Montreal and Toronto.
In the 1960s, Canada’s policies began to change. While many Canadians thought that West Indian immigrants, because of their inability to adapt to the Canadian climate or to overcome language barriers, would not fit into Canada, international opinion was beginning to shift. During the Cold War, Canada hoped to play a role as a broker between the superpowers and the rest of the world. Many in the Canadian government felt that its blatantly racist immigration policies were preventing Canada from achieving this goal. At the same time, there were growing pressures from within Canada as immigrant groups lobbied for fairer regulations.
A major change came in 1967 with the introduction of the point system. This system abolished the previous method which allowed for judgements based on race or class in favour of one that was now “colour-blind.” The new system awarded potential immigrants points based on education, work experience, and proficiency in one of the official languages. If people earned enough points, they could apply to immigrate. In the same year, immigration offices were opened in Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. These changes led to a large increase in the number of West Indians immigrating to Canada.
Black family, Vulcan, Alberta. People from Caribbean nations have chosen to immigrate to Canada because they view immigration as a way to establish a better future for themselves and their families. There are two main reasons immigrants choose Canada: Canada is know (1) for its political and civil freedom and stability and (2) for a healthier economy that promises not only jobs, but also the possibility of advancement.
Haiti is one example of a country whose people have left to seek out political freedoms not enjoyed at home. Since declaring its independence in 1804, Haiti has seen history marred by a succession of exploitive dictators and rulers. It has experienced coups d’etat, foreign occupation, and widespread human rights abuses as leaders attempted to root out opposition. Therefore, when Canada changed its immigration policies in 1967, many Haitians left their country. The immigrants to Canada were largely made up of not only professionals such as health workers and teachers, but also of political dissidents. As French speakers, Haitians settled predominantly in Québec.
Since 1972, Haitians have continued to arrive in Canada. However, many of these immigrants have entered Canada as refugees. As such, their tendency to speak Creole rather than French, compounded with their lower levels of education, has meant that Haitian refugees have had a harder time adapting to Canada. Still, these immigrants have settled in Québec — predominantly in Montréal. In 2001, there were 74,465 people of Haitian extraction living in Québec, and of those, 69,945 lived in Montréal, thereby making Haitians the largest visible minority in that city.
Jamaica has not suffered the political hardships experienced by Haitians; nevertheless, large numbers of Jamaicans immigrate to Canada. In this case, however, they do so for economic rather than for political reasons. Jamaicans find work in farming, mining, and tourism — industries dominated by international corporations. This has led to high levels of unemployment.
Most Jamaicans coming to Canada have settled in the Toronto region. In 2001, there were 150,840 Jamaicans living in Toronto and another 30,000 living in Ontario in cities such as Ottawa and Kitchener. An additional 30,000 Jamaicans were scattered throughout the rest of Canada.
Although West Indians have been immigrating to Canada for hundreds of years, they have not immigrated to all parts of Canada in equal numbers. The earliest immigrants arrived in the Maritimes and subsequently moved to Québec and Ontario where more recent immigration has been concentrated.
Québec has seen large numbers of Haitian immigrants because of their fluency in French.
Ontario has received the largest number of West Indians: they settled there first. The local population grew through two ways:
  1. Families immigrating to Canada would join their already established relatives in the Toronto area.
  2. West Indians were attracted to the area to join in the community already established.
Still, many West Indians have moved to Alberta, and most have settled in urban centres such as Calgary and Edmonton in search of work. In 2001, there were 31,390 black people living in Alberta — a little less than 5 percent of the national total. In Edmonton, there is an annual celebration of Caribbean culture, the Cariwest Festival. This three-day festival has been held every August since 1986 and kicks off with a parade through the downtown area. Calgary’s Caribbean celebration, Carifest, held every year in June, celebrated its 25th year in 2006. The first event is a Miss Caribbean pageant.

Icelandic Immigration to Alberta

Location of Iceland in Europe on 1. Januar 2007Image via WikipediaSource:
Like many other immigrants from Europe during the 1800s, Icelanders, for economic reasons, left their country for Canada. Although inhabited by only 70,000 people, their tiny North Atlantic island nation, one sixth the size of Alberta, could no longer support their booming population. Iceland’s landscape, with its volcanoes, geysers, and other forms of geothermal activity, means that only one percent of its land is suitable for farming. In the mid-1800s, a lack of farmland was exacerbated (made worse) by the fact farmers were primarily tenant farmers, paying rent to the Danish crown.
The first Icelanders to leave for North America settled in the northern United States in the 1850s. In 1873, a group of 165 was coming through Canada on its way to the United States. The Canadian government was trying encourage settlement of the Canadian West and was eager to entice Icelanders to stay. Because Icelanders, as northern Europeans, were seen as desirable, the Canadian government offered them free transportation from Quebec City and 200 free acres of land as incentive to settle in Canada. Of those 165 settlers, 115 took up the offer.
Crowning of the Fjallkona, Icelandic National 
Day Celebration Although Icelanders originally settled in Muskoka, Ontario, this settlement did not last. Instead, the Icelanders continued west, stopping in Manitoba, north of Winnipeg. This community became known as New Iceland and from 1876 through 1887, it was the focal point of Icelandic immigration to Canada.
The location of New Iceland was chosen because it reminded the Icelanders of their homeland and offered them the chance both to fish and to raise livestock. Compared with Iceland, however, the new community had the distinct advantage of forests. In Iceland, the only source of wood was driftwood but Canada’s abundant trees were a source of both fuel and shelter. Icelanders hoped to establish a large Icelandic community where their culture and language could flourish.
It was not to be. The community, which numbered 1,500 in 1876, lost 100 members to a smallpox epidemic and another 100 to other causes, including malnutrition. Many left, moving to Saskatchewan or Winnipeg.
Icelandic settlement in Alberta began in 1888 when a group that had been living in North Dakota decided to move. The group chose a plot of land near the Red Deer River, about 130 kilometres north of Calgary. Originally known as Tindastoll, it was later renamed Markerville. Like the New Iceland settlement before it, Markerville was chosen because it provided the opportunity both to fishing and to raise livestock.
Icelandic float in parade, Calgary, Alberta, 
1908 While these Icelandic pioneers had difficulty establishing themselves, Markerville was a more successful settlement than earlier communities. The fishing was good and their catch was dried for eating over winter. Sheep were raised for their meat and wool, and cows were milked. In fact, the small community established several cheese factories which eventually merged to form the Tindastoll Butter and Cheese Manufacturing Association. Because the soil ill-suited to the growing of vegetables, these first settlers relied on the native berries in the area.
By the time World War I broke out in 1914, over 16,000 Icelanders had immigrated to Canada and most were living east of Alberta. After this point, however, the influx of immigrants began to slow, largely due to a change in Iceland’s economy as a result of improvements in the country’s fishing industry. Consequently, few Icelanders were forced to seek better fortunes abroad.
Alberta’s Icelandic communities began to lose their Icelandic flavour. The lack of new immigration and the death of the original immigrants meant that most of the Icelanders had been born in Canada. Already minorities in their communities, they began to assimilate even more quickly.
Beginning in the 1930s, Icelanders began the process of urbanization. Both Calgary and Edmonton received an influx of migrants and became centres of Icelandic culture in Alberta. In both cities, cultural groups were organized and events, have been held, sometimes in conjunction with other Scandinavian groups.


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Torontonians are the least happy people in Canada: study

Skyline of TorontoImage via Wikipedia
Elizabeth Haggarty Toronto Star
Oh, Toronto, you are a glum lot — well, at least compared to the rest of Canada.
When it comes to happiness, Torontonians fall at the bottom of the pack, according to a new study.
Does Money Matter?: Determining the Happiness of Canadians examined the life satisfaction and happiness of Canadians according to where they lived.
With a happiness rating of 4.15, the Toronto CMA came last, falling below the Canadian average of 4.24. Sherbrooke, Que., and Brantford tied at the top of the list with a score of 4.36.
Ontario did not fare any better than its largest city, lingering at the bottom of the happy-provinces list along with British Columbia.
So, where are all the happy Canadians? You will find them in P.E.I and Quebec.
Before you crack the pages of Anne of Green Gables in search of an elusive happiness, consider that we are competing amongst a very happy lot: Canada consistently ranks among the five happiest nations in the world, and is the happiest member of the G7.
“You’re not miserable, you are just slightly less happy than other Canadians on average,” Andrew Sharpe, Executive Director of the Centre for the Study of Living Standards points out.
So, why are we less satisfied with life than our provincial counterparts?
“[Lower happiness levels are] linked to the higher levels of stress in Toronto that may be associated with two-hour commutes,” said Sharpe.
We also suffer from “less of a feeling of community because of the large concentration of population and trend towards skyscraper living.”
Toronto’s status as the immigrant capital of Canada also affects our happiness rating.
“Immigrants tend to be less happy than other Canadians because of their employment problems and because when they are employed they tend to earn less than other Canadians,” said Sharpe.
Sharpe points to this as a clear sign that more needs to be done to improve the experience of immigrants in Canada.
The study found that while income did not have a considerable effect on a person’s happiness, overall health and employment statues certainly did.
So, what should you do to boost your statistical chances of happiness? Move to Sherbrooke, Que., complete your post secondary education, and find a life-partner.
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Naked Gun Canadian Actor Leslie Nielsen Passes

Lieutenant Frank DrebinImage via WikipediaLeslie Nielsen in "Naked Gun"
On Sunday, November 28, famed actor Leslie William Nielsen, passed away from pneumonia complications at the age of 84 at Fort Lauderdale hospital. He is survived by his wife, Barbaree Earl Nielsen, and two children.
Doug Nielsen, Nielsen’s nephew, stated on radio station CJOB, that “Leslie’s been in the hospital with pneumonia now for a number of days, approximately 12 days and just in this last 48 hours the infection has gotten too much, and today at 5:30 with his friends and his wife Barbaree by his side he just fell asleep and passed away.”
Nielsen was born on February 11, 1926 to Welsh and Danish immigrants. He was born in Canada and enlisted in the Royal Canadian Air Force after high school. He credited his acting abilities to the persistent lies he often told his strict father to avoid punishments.  After receiving a scholarship to New York’s Neighborhood Playhouse, Nielsen vigorously started to pursue acting.
Nielsen’s early career was that of a dramatic actor, however, after several years in the industry he reinvented himself into a satirical comedian.  His comedic breakthrough was his role in the movie, “Airplane!” In an interview he said, “When I read the [Airplane!] script, I knew exactly what they were after," he said. "It was the greatest break of my life, in a sense, that I ended up working with people who spotted me for being the closet comedian that I was.”
He managed to stay relevant in this industry for about 60 years and appeared in over 200 movies. He is best known for his role as incompetent and accident prone Detective Frank Drebin in the Naked Gun trilogy.
Although he started his career as a dramatic actor, he was often behind the scenes pulling pranks and being a jokester. For him, comedy came naturally. In an interview in January 2010 Nielsen said, “I love doing comedy. I am also happy doing drama but my main baby is comedy!” When asked what his secret for great comedy was, he answered, “I don’t know what the secret is. I don’t wanna be the champion of the great secret. I remember when I was in New York to see a Charlie Chaplin festival, on a dull winter’s day and I came out after seeing a couple of the movies and it was sunshine, bright and cheerful and I came out laughing. That is the secret of great comedy.”
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Canada popular with Irish expats in 2011

Irish DancingImage by wburris via Flickr

Catherine Deshayes

An aging population and low birth rate means that Canada needs expats more than ever with high immigration levels likely in 2011, according to government officials...
The country expects to have between 240,000 and 265,000 new permanent residents in 2011, the same as for 2010, said Citizenship, Immigration and Multiculturalism Minister Jason Kenney.
‘Canada's post recession economy demands a high level of legal immigration to keep our workforce strong,' he said. All of the country's labour force growth will come from immigration within the next five years, according to the ministry.
Some 25% of newcomers are destined for provinces other than Ontario, British Columbia and Quebec, compared to 11% in 1997, with the Federal Skilled Worker Programme expected to be the most popular means of entry. It admits a range of workers, including technicians, skilled tradespersons, managers and professionals.
Anecdotal evidence suggest that there will be a significant influx of Irish expats as more and more people search for jobs abroad due to the country's financial crisis and Canada has always been popular with the Irish.
Irishman Eamonn O'Loghlin has set up an online job seekers website with support from the Ireland Canada Chamber of Commerce (ICCC) to help Irish people find jobs and move to Canada. He also publishes a magazine for Irish expats in Canada.
With Canada emerging from the global recession in good shape, it is an increasingly popular destination among young people, says O'Loghlin. The Irish will always receive a good welcome here, he says, making special mention of the Canadian finance minister, Jim Flaherty, who is descended from Irish stock.
He advises young immigrants to be professional, to be prepared and to look the part. ‘Make sure the first two or three sentences in the CV grab the reader because the competition is fierce. You've got to be better than the rest.'
Those looking for jobs in Canada include mechanical engineers, IT system analysts, construction managers (the Irish construction sector has been particularly badly hit in the downturn), accountants and marketing executives.
Irish companies are also increasingly looking to the Canadian market, which has shown a lot of resilience in the face of the global economic crisis. More than 220 Irish companies now sell goods and services into Canada, and over 45 Irish companies operate offices and facilities in Canada, according to the ICCC.
Irish Minister for Enterprise, Trade and Employment, Mary Coughlan, has just led the largest Irish trade mission in history to Canada, visiting Edmonton, Toronto and Ottowa. The focus of the mission was to increase the profile and highlight the achievements of world-class Irish companies who have successfully broken into the Canadian market.
The trade mission cantered around 35 high tech Irish companies who are doing business in Canada and many of companies have secured high profile deals and partnerships worth over €10 million. Bilateral trade between Ireland and Canada is expected to increase by €80 million this year, and sales into Canada by Irish companies have trebled in the past five years.
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Portuguese Immigration to Canada

The Palace of São Bento, Lisbon, house of the ...Image via WikipediaBefore 1950 most immigration occurred from fishing and exploring.
The immigrants from Portugal that came to Canada were fishermen. 85 men in total came, 65 from the main land and 18 from the island of Azores named San Miguel, immigrated to Canada during that time. They fished off the coast of Newfoundland where there they would find rich fishing areas. The Portuguese balanced their diet by eating cod. In 1500 a big amount of Portuguese fisherman joined the French and fish there, but only some Portuguese settled there. They didn’t spend much time in Canada because of large vessels that they were using didn’t allow them to stay much time. Many people came but what made them come.
This is what happened to the Portuguese people, that made them have to immigrate. After World War II Portuguese began to immigrate to Canada, this began around 1947. Before this Canada’s cold climate and Newfoundland’s poor economy, didn’t grab Portuguese attention.

After 1950

After 1950 the Portuguese people that immigrated to Canada had a better chance of living, because of all the changes that were happening. The Portuguese started to immigrate to many places including Venezuela, South Africa, Argentina, West side of Germany, United States, and Canada. Many of the Portuguese left Portugal because they didn’t want to get involved with the war. They kept on immigrating to Canada because of all the immigrants from Angola that were starting to bunch up in Portugal, made it very hard to find a job. Most of the men left their families in Portugal, went to Canada to make money so they could save some money, buy a house, and try to go back to Portugal and stay there forever. Canada wasn’t just the only country that the Portuguese immigrated to, they also went to Brazil. Only 61 700 people went to Canada during 1950-1976, and over 300 000 wen to Brazil during that time period. 8115 went to Canada during 1951-1957. In 1958-1962 that number of people increased. There was now twice as much people as there was in 1951-1957. Once more the number's increased. Hundreds of Portuguese people immigrated to Canada from Portugal.
Where the Portuguese arrived was a place where they would do many things. The Portuguese settled in Halifax, Nova Scotia, this was during 1953. After they settled, the Portuguese started to explore and later on they settled in Toronto, Galt-Cambridge, and Montreal. They started to go to those places because other people had said that there were a bigger variety of jobs to go to. They also went there because they would get paid fairly well from the jobs in these large cities. There was also cheap housing, and cheap housing helped the Portuguese a l lot because they didn’t have that much money to spend. A man by the name Manuel Cabral even brought some American people to go work for him, because he owned a job up in Canada. They fished and settled in the province of Nova Scotia.
How did the Portuguese immigrants come so far? How did the Portuguese immigrate to Canada and other parts of the world? Well they crossed the Atlantic ocean on boats and ships, to come to Canada. But in other closer places they just simply ran away because there were a lot of things going on. It was all because of War and Portuguese people needed money and food to survive, so they immigrated to all parts of the world. They went to a lot, in boats to get to Canada.
Why did the Portuguese immigrate to Canada? Ill tell you. The government in Brazil was already restricting immigration, but in Canada there was still people immigrating, because the government opened up and let in anyone, even family members. People kept on immigrating to Canada because there was freedom, and in Portugal there wasn’t freedom in Portugal because of all the wars that were happening. People talked to the Portuguese years after they immigrated to Canada, and they said, “All we wanted was to live in a free country.” Three other big reasons were: friends and other people said that there was a better chance of getting a job, people bought houses, and had their own business, and live in these large cities. A community was already forming by the 1950’s in Toronto, Galt-Cambridge, and in Montreal. Canada had no choice but to take immigrants.
I am going to tell you when and where many first immigrants first settled. The first ever group of Portuguese immigrants that came to Canada was in 1953 and would later settled in the prairies of Ontario. Toronto, Galt-Cambridge, and Montreal had many of the first Portuguese immigrants that ever came to Canada. There were 16 700 Portuguese people that immigrated to Canada during 1958-1962, by 1963-67 that number had doubled. Over hundreds of thousands of Portuguese people immigrated to Canada during certain time periods
This concludes my report. In this report it should have told you that before the 1950’s there weren’t too many people immigrating to Canada from Portugal, but after 1950 there were many immigrants from Portugal. 

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Skilled Worker Immigrants Faring Well in Canada, New Evaluation Shows

National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, OntarioImage via WikipediaOTTAWA, ONTARIO -- (Marketwire) -- 11/25/10 -- Immigrants selected by the federal government under the current skilled worker program are contributing to Canada's economy, a new evaluation has found.
The evaluation measured whether the current federal skilled worker program is selecting immigrants who are more likely to succeed economically in Canada. In 2009, federal skilled workers made up approximately 10 percent of Canada's annual immigration intake-25 percent when one includes spouses and dependent children.
According to the evaluation, the biggest predictors of an immigrant's economic success are having a job already arranged in Canada when applying; the ability to speak English or French; and having worked in Canada before applying to immigrate. Having studied in Canada for at least two years and having a relative in Canada are less of a determinant of success.
"The evaluation showed that skilled immigrants are doing well in Canada and filling gaps in our work force," said Minister of Citizenship, Immigration and Multiculturalism Jason Kenney. "This puts some dents in the doctors-driving-taxis stereotype."
The findings revealed that the selection criteria, put in place when the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA) became law, have been successful in improving the outcomes of skilled immigrants by placing more emphasis on arranged employment, language and education. Income for skilled workers selected under the IRPA criteria was as much as 65 percent higher than for workers chosen under the pre-IRPA system. Skilled workers who already had a job offer when they applied for permanent residence fared best of all, earning on average $79,200 three years after arriving in Canada. The findings also revealed that skilled workers selected under the IRPA criteria were less likely to rely on employment insurance or social assistance.
Among other recommendations, the evaluation suggested placing higher priority on younger workers, and increasing the integrity of the arranged employment part of the program, which is susceptible to fraud. The evaluation also recommended that further emphasis be placed on fluency in English or French, and supported the Minister's June 2010 decision to require language testing for federal skilled worker applicants to combat fraud.
"We're pleased the evaluation showed that the program is working as intended," said Minister Kenney. "We're committed to making it even better and will be consulting on improvements in the coming weeks." The Department is planning to put forward for public consultation several proposals to improve the program, building on the achievements in the evaluation report.
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Nova Scotia: Agri-Food Sector Stream

Nova Scotia Province within Canada.Image via WikipediaThe Agri-Food Sector stream is aimed at immigrants interested in agri-food primary production and/or value added production. The stream gives the opportunity to strengthen rural communities by creating jobs and growing the economy by bringing agricultural skills to Nova Scotia. The Agri-Food Sector pilot is a joint venture between the Office of Immigration and the Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture.
To be eligible to apply under this stream, the applicant must:
  • have legal status in the country of residence
  • be between the ages of 21 and 55
  • have completed the equivalent to a Canadian high school diploma with a minimum of 12 years of education and/or training from a recognized institution and/or authority
  • provide proof of sufficient English or French language proficiency to be employable and functional in Nova Scotia upon arrival based on documentation of language proficiency
  • have a minimum of 3 years experience in farm ownership, farm management OR practical farming experience with skills relevant to Nova Scotia farming conditions.
  • have marketable skills to supplement farm income (or his/her spouse)
  • demonstrate that you have sufficient settlement supports and financial resources, including transferable funds in your name, in order to pay your immigration costs and travel expenses (if applicable) and to successfully establish yourself and your family in the agri-food sector.
  • have a minimum personal net worth of $150,000 (after relocation to Nova Scotia - before the farm is purchased).
  • make a minimum equity investment of $100,000 in a new or existing farming operation in capital assets (land, machinery) or working capital.
  • plan to establish a farm, purchase a farm or become partner in an existing farm business. If you invest in an existing farm business, you must control at least 33.33% and take an active part in the operation of the business.
  • submit a detailed agri-business plan with your application form. A template can be found at
A qualifying farming business must demonstrate a minimum annual revenue of $10,000 CAD. Hobby farms are not eligible.
You need to come for a minimum of one 5 working days exploratory visit for Nova Scotia to explore farming opportunities. During this visit, you will meet with representatives of the Department of Agriculture who will inform and guide you in the Nova Scotia agri-food sector. You will also have an interview with a nominee officer from the Office of Immigration who will provide you with information about the application process.

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Manitoba Province within Canada.Image via Wikipedia
Manitoba welcomes applications from U.S. residents under a special initiative of our government immigration program.

Under the initiative, applications from the U.S. will be given priority assessment.

Why choose Manitoba?

We're the friendly and prosperous Canadian province that neighbours North Dakota. Manitoba offers opportunities for you and your family to pursue rewarding careers while enjoying an affordable lifestyle and the benefits of high-quality, accessible public education and health care.

U.S. residents will find employment opportunities here. Our economy is stable and strong. Americans who have visited Manitoba for pleasure - and for business or work - find they feel right at home.

The Manitoba government selects candidates for immigration based on their job and English language skills and ability to settle as permanent residents of Manitoba.

U.S. residents can apply to the Manitoba Provincial Nominee Program under a special initiative. Eligibility requirements include making an exploratory visit to Manitoba. For details, visit Strategic Initiatives.

To learn about living and working in Manitoba, visit Choose Manitoba.

Defying Trend, Canada Lures More Migrants

Manitoba Legislature, meeting place of the Leg...Image via WikipediaArticle originally published in the New York Times.

WINNIPEG, Manitoba — As waves of immigrants from the developing world remade Canada a decade ago, the famously friendly people of Manitoba could not contain their pique.
What irked them was not the Babel of tongues, the billions spent on health care and social services, or the explosion of ethnic identities. The rub was the newcomers’ preference for “M.T.V.” — Montreal, Toronto or Vancouver — over the humble prairie province north of North Dakota, which coveted workers and population growth.
Demanding “our fair share,” Manitobans did something hard to imagine in American politics, where concern over illegal immigrants dominates public debate and states seek more power to keep them out. In Canada, which has little illegal immigration, Manitoba won new power to bring foreigners in, handpicking ethnic and occupational groups judged most likely to stay.
This experiment in designer immigration has made Winnipeg a hub of parka-clad diversity — a blue-collar town that gripes about the cold in Punjabi and Tagalog — and has defied the anti-immigrant backlash seen in much of the world.
Rancorous debates over immigration have erupted from Australia to Sweden, but there is no such thing in Canada as an anti-immigrant politician. Few nations take more immigrants per capita, and perhaps none with less fuss.
Is it the selectivity Canada shows? The services it provides? Even the Mad Cowz, a violent youth gang of African refugees, did nothing to curb local appetites for foreign workers.
“When I took this portfolio, I expected some of the backlash that’s occurred in other parts of the world,” said Jennifer Howard, Manitoba’s minister of immigration. “But I have yet to have people come up to me and say, ‘I want fewer immigrants.’ I hear, ‘How can we bring in more?’ ”
This steak-and-potatoes town now offers stocks of palm oil and pounded yams, four Filipino newspapers, a large Hindu Diwali festival, and a mandatory course on Canadian life from the grand to the granular. About 600 newcomers a month learn that the Canadian charter ensures “the right to life, liberty and security” and that employers like cover letters in Times New Roman font. (A gentle note to Filipinos: résumés with photographs, popular in Manila, are frowned on in Manitoba.)
“From the moment we touched down at the airport, it was love all the way,” said Olusegun Daodu, 34, a procurement professional who recently arrived from Nigeria to join relatives and marveled at the medical card that offers free care. “If we have any reason to go to the hospital now, we just walk in.”
“The license plates say ‘Friendly Manitoba,’ ” said his wife, Hannah.
“It’s true — really, really true,” Mr. Daodu said. “I had to ask my aunt, ‘Do they ever get angry here?’ ”
Canada has long sought immigrants to populate the world’s second largest land mass, but two developments in the 1960s shaped the modern age. One created a point system that favors the highly skilled. The other abolished provisions that screened out nonwhites. Millions of minorities followed, with Chinese, Indians and Filipinos in the lead.
Relative to its population, Canada takes more than twice as many legal immigrants as the United States. Why no hullabaloo?
With one-ninth of the United States’ population, Canada is keener for growth, and the point system helps persuade the public it is getting the newcomers it needs. The children of immigrants typically do well. The economic downturn has been mild. Plus the absence of large-scale illegal immigration removes a dominant source of the conflict in the United States.
“The big difference between Canada and the U.S is that we don’t border Mexico,” said Naomi Alboim, a former immigration official who teaches at Queens University in Ontario.
French and English from the start, Canada also has a more accommodating political culture — one that accepts more pluribus and demands less unum. That American complaint — “Why do I have to press 1 for English?” — baffles a country with a minister of multiculturalism.

Another force is in play: immigrant voting strength. About 20 percent of Canadians are foreign born (compared with 12.5 percent in the United States), and they are quicker to acquire citizenship and voting rights. “It’s political suicide to be against immigration,” said Leslie Seidle of the Institute for Research on Public Policy, a Montreal group.

Some stirrings of discontent can be found. The rapid growth of the “M.T.V.” cities has fueled complaints about congestion and housing costs. A foiled 2006 terrorist plot brought modest concern about radical Islam. And critics of the refugee system say it rewards false claims of persecution, leaving the country with an unlocked back door.
“There’s considerably more concern among our people than is reflected in our policies,” said Martin Collacott, who helped create the Center for Immigration Policy Reform, a new group that advocates less immigration.
Mr. Collacott argues high levels of immigration have run up the cost of the safety net, slowed economic growth and strained civic cohesion, but he agrees the issue has little force in politics. “There’s literally no one in Parliament willing to take up the cudgel,” he said.
The Manitoba program, started in 1998 at employers’ behest, has grown rapidly under both liberal and conservative governments. While the federal system favors those with college degrees, Manitoba takes the semi-skilled, like truck drivers, and focuses on people with local relatives in the hopes that they will stay. The newcomers can bring spouses and children and get a path to citizenship.
Most are required to bring savings, typically about $10,000, to finance the transition without government aid. While the province nominates people, the federal government does background checks and has the final say. Unlike many migrant streams, the new Manitobans have backgrounds that are strikingly middle class.
“Back home was good — not bad,” said Nishkam Virdi, 32, who makes $17 an hour at the Palliser furniture plant after moving from India, where his family owned a machine shop.
He said he was drawn less by wages than by the lure of health care and solid utilities. “The living standard is higher — the lighting, the water, the energy,” he said.
The program has attracted about 50,000 people over the last decade, and surveys show a majority stayed. Ms. Howard, the immigration minister, credits job placement and language programs, but many migrants cite the informal welcomes.
“Because we are from the third world, I thought they might think they are superior,” said Anne Simpao, a Filipino nurse in tiny St. Claude, who was approached by a stranger and offered dishes and a television set. “They call it friendly Manitoba, and it’s really true.”
One complaint throughout Canada is the difficulty many immigrants have in transferring professional credentials. Heredina Maranan, 45, a certified public accountant in Manila, has been stuck in a Manitoba factory job for a decade. She did not disguise her disappointment when relatives sought to follow her. “I did not encourage them,” she said. “I think I deserved better.”
They came anyway — two families totaling 14 people, drawn not just by jobs but the promise of good schools.
“Of course I wanted to come here,” said her nephew, Lordie Osena. “In the Philippines there are 60 children in one room.”
Every province except Quebec now runs a provincial program, each with different criteria, diluting the force of the federal point system. The Manitoba program has grown so rapidly, federal officials have imposed a numerical cap.
Arthur Mauro, a Winnipeg business leader, hails the Manitoba program but sees limited lessons for a country as demographically different as the United States. “There are very few states in the U.S. that say, ‘We need people,’ ” he said.
But Arthur DeFehr, chief executive officer of Palliser furniture, does see a lesson: choose migrants who fill local needs and give them a legal path.
With 11 million illegal immigrants in the United States, he sees another opportunity for Manitoba. “I’m sure many of those people would make perfectly wonderful citizens of Canada,” he said. “I think we should go and get them.”
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Will these Irish migrants be different from the past?

Location of IrelandImage via WikipediaSource: BBC News
The Celtic Tiger is in intensive care and young people are rushing for the exits. But how will a new exodus of Irish to Britain compare with previous waves of Irish immigration, asks Tom de Castella?
A couple of days before Ireland's politicians meekly agreed to the EU's financial bailout, a gleaming new terminal opened at Dublin airport.
T2 cost 600m euros but with the economy in deep recession and passenger numbers falling, it is being seen as a monument to Ireland's economic collapse.
Ryanair boss Michael O'Leary arrived at the opening in a hearse dressed in an undertaker's outfit and bearing a coffin, while a taxi driver told the Financial Times: "I suppose they're getting it ready for all the young people trying to emigrate."
Black humour is rife but beneath the joking lies a serious point. Ireland may be on the verge of sending another wave of migrants to foreign shores.
Passport Many young Irish are now reaching for one of these
In the year up to April 2010, Irish emigration grew by 40% to 65,000 but almost half of those were Eastern Europeans returning home. The difference now is that the numbers are accelerating and it is the Irish who are leaving, according to the country's Economic and Social Research Institute. In July the research body predicted that 200,000 people would emigrate between 2010 and 2015.
"We've always had a culture of emigration," says Jamie Smyth, social affairs correspondent at the Irish Times, referring to the potato famine of the 1840s in which the Irish population shrank by more than 20% after a million people died and another million emigrated.
With a third of under-25s out of work it is the young who are most likely to leave, with Australia, New Zealand and Canada ahead of the UK as destinations according to last year's figures, says Smyth.

“Start Quote

Claire Weir
If you can get out you do”
End Quote Claire Weir, 25
Indeed in the first nine months of 2009, there was only a 7% rise in the number of Irish people registered to work in the UK, hardly a major increase. But he cautions that these figures are a year out of date, and since then the UK economy has begun to recover while Ireland's economic malaise has worsened.
Claire Weir, a 25-year-old graduate, is one of the new arrivals to Britain. At the weekend she packed up her stuff, got a lift to Dublin and took the ferry to Holyhead, en route to a new life in London.
The trained photographer is sleeping on a friend's sofa, looking for part-time work in a supermarket or pub to pay the bills while she finds regular photography work.
"I just want a job, I need a bit of money coming in and can't live on thin air. I don't think I can get that consistency in Ireland."
Emigration of Irish nationals
Part of her photography studies involved taking pictures of the many unfinished property developments that now litter Ireland. She and her friends feel betrayed by a political and business class that has indebted the country for her generation. Now they are voting with their feet.
"If you can get out you do. I come from a rural area in County Meath and there are very few graduates left. Four of my closest friends have gone, the others are either in a relationship or at college so can't leave."
Mary Corcoran, professor of sociology at the National University of Ireland, Maynooth, says that the boom years were an exception - for nearly every other decade since the Irish state was founded in 1919, emigration has been part of its economic survival.
Emigration reached its apogee in the 1950s when 50,000 people left a year. The outward trend stopped briefly during the 1970s but returned with a vengeance the following decade when unemployment soared. On average, 35,000 people were leaving the country a year during the 80s.
"That is the decade many are comparing today's situation with. People remember airports at Christmas time packed with emigrants coming home and the farewells in January when they all went back again."

A 1950s Irish childhood in Britain

Poet and academic Eavan Boland moved to Britain in the early 50s when her father took up the post of Irish ambassador to London. Despite her family's exalted position in society, she recalls a British establishment that saw the Irish as "a sub race". It led her to write the poem An Irish Childhood in England: 1951, which reflected on an incident when she first went to school in England aged six. "The Irish frequently say 'I amn't' instead of 'I'm not'. But when I stood there in school and uttered the phrase the teacher turned to me scathingly and said: 'You're not in Ireland now'. It was a very small incident but has always stayed with me. We went onto the shores of England as a defeated people."
Britain, along with America, was the traditional choice for Irish people seeking a new life. In the 19th Century it was the Irish navvies who built Britain's railways, in the 20th Century they manned the nation's building sites or worked as domestic help, creating Irish ghettos in the big cities.
"When we think of emigration we think of the famine ships or the people who went to Kilburn in the early 70s and drank themselves into an early grave," she says. But the character of emigration has changed. The Irish population today is far better educated with nearly half of 25-34 year-olds having gone on to higher education, the second highest rate in the EU.
Today's immigrants are more likely to be in IT or business than construction. And whereas in the past the US was easy to settle in without papers, today the Patriot Act and tighter checks makes America off limits to most Irish.
So how will the new arrivals to Britain fare? Highly-skilled graduates in areas such as IT will find it relatively easy to get jobs, she believes. But the construction workers who once had easy pickings on British building sites will now be competing against well established East Europeans. On the plus side, whereas it was hard for previous generations to keep in touch with home, the advent of e-mail, Skype and Ryanair has made it much easier for the new wave of immigrants.
Hurling player The loss of young hurlers has affected village teams
And neither will they face the same hostility as their forebears. Britain was once a byword for prejudice against Irish workers with the notorious "No Blacks, No Dogs, No Irish" signs posted on B&B doors. Later, IRA bombings intensified anti-Irish feelings.
But things have changed beyond recognition for the new wave of Irish arrivals in the UK. Not only has the peace process reset the political context and the boom years given the Irish self-confidence, but the activities of radical Islamist groups have created a new scapegoat, she says.
Poet Eavan Boland, who moved to the UK in the 1950s, believes that despite possible tensions over historical baggage, the new wave of immigrants will not face the prejudices expressed in the past.
"The UK is no longer anti-Irish. In those days Ireland was a country that had been disloyal in World War II by staying neutral. It was Catholic. It was only when it became a republic in 1948 - previously it was a Free State - that Irish people could travel in Britain without papers.
"Now we're all European, we have the same passport and are entitled to free movement. Britain was a great partner in the peace process, people went through a lot together.
"And David Cameron made a beautiful speech about Bloody Sunday that was an extremely healing moment. It's come too far, there's too much understanding. I don't think you can reverse that now."
But with some resentment evident on both sides of the Irish Sea about the UK role in the rescue package agreed this week - British taxpayers unhappy and Irish pride rather injured - it remains to be seen where the relationship goes from here


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